Sixty-six people were arrested. The foreign minister was requested to contact European countries to freeze the other defendants' accounts. Maher: Cool. 15 July: Tahrir Square protests continued. We are all Khaled Said is a Facebook group which formed in the aftermath of Said's beating and death. Among those present on January 25, very few suffered from the ambivalent embrace of democracy offered by Egypt's religiously conservative politicians and … Celebration\ Observance In fact, throughout the day, especially in Cairo, police and military presence was almost unseen, yet the masses taking the streets remained largely peaceful. With his father's health declining and no appointed vice-president, Gamal was considered Egypt's de facto president by some. [221], On 30 June 2013, marking the one-year anniversary of Morsi's inauguration as president, millions of Egyptians protested against him, demanding he step down from office. The January 25 Revolution was a call for change. President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi issued a decree on Monday pardoning a number of prisoners on the occasion of the ninth anniversary of the 25 January Revolution and Police Day. 25 January Revolution Day commemorates the beginning of protests in 2011 that eventually led to the resignation of 30-year ruling Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali from power, protests against the Mubarak regime erupted on January 25, 2011. [95] According to The Washington Post, "The Jasmine Revolution [...] should serve as a stark warning to Arab leaders – beginning with Egypt's 83-year-old Hosni Mubarak – that their refusal to allow more economic and political opportunity is dangerous and untenable. In such a situation it is more likely that radicals will influence their neighbors, who are not able to see the public opinion displayed in social media, therefore these people are then more likely to also engage in civil unrest.[397]. 23 July: Thousands of protesters attempted to march to the defense ministry after a speech by Mohammed Tantawi commemorating the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but are met with counter-insurgents with sticks, stones and Molotov cocktails. Egypt's revolution began on 25 January, the "Day of Revolt", when tens of thousands of marchers occupied Cairo's Tahrir Square to protest against President Hosni Mubarak and … [citation needed] In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) gave Egypt a score of 3.1 based on perceptions by business people and analysts of the degree of corruption (with 10 being clean, and 0 totally corrupt). Zuheir Garana and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz. The only opposition presidential candidate in recent Egyptian history, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned before the 2005 elections. [393] Its use was important in order to portray the violence of the Egyptian government, as well as, building support for the revolution through several different mediums. A 48-hour ultimatum was issued to him, demanding that he respond to the demands of the Egyptians,[222] and on 3 July 2013, the President of Egypt was overthrown. [355], As head of Egypt's armed forces, Tantawi has been described as "aged and change-resistant" and is attached to the old regime. On 30 June the group organized large protests in Tahrir Square and the presidential palace demanding early presidential elections, which later spread to other governorates. The 25th of January marks the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, widely known as January 25 Revolution. "[316], On 3 March, Prime Minister Shafiq submitted his resignation to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. We want to celebrate it. 1 year ago . Under the new law, anyone organising such protests will be subject to imprisonment or a fine of EGP500,000 (about US$100,000).[130]. Islamist organisations emerged with a greater freedom to operate. The next day, the Muslim Brotherhood announced that it would form a political party, the Freedom and Justice Party led by Saad Ketatni, for the upcoming parliamentary election. January 2011: Activists in Egypt ... January 25: On a national ... AFP news agency reports five were dead and 100 are wounded in the clashes that have been going on for two days… [259], Funerals for those killed during the "Friday of Anger" were held on 30 January. Negotiations by Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and opposition representatives began during continuing protests throughout the country. She shows how political cartoons were removed, and how the number of casualties became a source of heated debate. On 1 February Mubarak said that although his candidacy had been announced by high-ranking members of his National Democratic Party,[289] he never intended to run for reelection in September. Sadat undid Nasser's social reforms and dependence on the Soviet Union, predicting its collapse nearly two decades before it occurred. This is an empowering factor for women, who have become more present and active publicly. [192][193][194][195][196][197], 26 June: The Supreme Administrative Court revoked Decree No. "[383] Amir Ali has argued that, based in part on the Egyptian revolution, social media may be an effective tool in developing nations.[384]. On 9 March 2011 military police violently dispersed a sit-in in Tahrir Square, arresting and torturing protesters. Protesters defied a government-imposed curfew, which was impossible to enforce by the police and military. The public holiday is a paid vacation for all civil servants in ministries and governmental institutions as well as the companies affiliated to the public, business and private sectors. Protesters gather at … : Hearing before the Subcommittee on the Middle East and North Africa of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, 26 February 2013, 2011 attack on the Israeli Embassy in Egypt, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, Timeline of insurgency in Egypt (2013–present), Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present), Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present), Communal conflicts in Nigeria (1998–present), Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present), Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–2018), Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Egyptian_revolution_of_2011&oldid=993553521, Pages with login required references or sources, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Articles needing additional references from April 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The basic minimum wage rose from EGP 246 to EGP 870 on 22 March 2015, 7. [123], 3 March: A day before large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as prime minister and was replaced by Essam Sharaf. The April 6 Youth Movement was a major supporter of the protest, distributing 20,000 leaflets saying "I will protest on 25 January for my rights". [80] According to a 2007 UN survey, voter turnout was extremely low (about 25 percent) because of a lack of trust in the political system. [55] Human-rights organizations estimate that in 2010, between 5,000 and 10,000 people were in long-term detention without charge or trial. Ben-Ami noted that with Islam a central part of the society, any emergent regime was bound to be attuned to religion. [279] Amid growing concern for the country, David Cameron was the first world leader to visit Egypt (10 days after Mubarak's resignation). Copies of Sharp's list of 198 non-violent "weapons", translated into Arabic and not always attributed to him, were circulated in Tahrir Square during its occupation. Prisons were opened and burned down, allegedly on orders from Interior Minister Habib El Adly. [212][213], Morsi's declaration was criticized by Constitution Party leader Mohamed ElBaradei (who said that he had "usurped all state powers and appointed himself Egypt's new pharaoh"),[214] and led to violent protests throughout the country. [36] It sparked general outrage from secularists and members of the military, and mass protests broke out against his rule on 28 June 2013. [364], Foreign governments in the West (including the U.S.) regarded Mubarak as an important ally and supporter in the Israeli–Palestinian peace negotiations. have taken action. See Public holidays in Egypt. Eight years after Egypt’s revolution, here’s what we’ve learned about social media and protest Egyptians wave the national flag in Cairo’s Tahrir Square during a rally on Jan. 25, 2014. The revolution, propelled by the success of anti-government protests in Tunisia, lasted 18 days, during which citizens of all walks of life demonstrated […] A Diary to Democracy about the Egyptian Revolution. [114] disrupting Internet traffic and telephone services[115]. Unlike the imposition of martial law which followed the 2011 resignation of Hosni Mubarak, on 4 July 2013, a civilian senior jurist Adly Mansour was appointed interim president and was sworn in over the new government following Morsi's removal. Their sense of being let down by national security forces was cited as one of the first grievances sparking 25 January uprising. Calls were made for the council to provide details and more-specific timetables and deadlines. It limits non-governmental political activity, including demonstrations, unapproved political organizations and unregistered financial donations. Maher, co-founder of... Aswat Masriya January 5, 2017. Fighting continued through the night, with police using tear gas, beating and shooting demonstrators. [297][298][299] Journalists were harassed by supporters of the regime, eliciting condemnation from the Committee to Protect Journalists, European countries and the United States. the Justice Ministry issued a decree giving military officers authority to arrest civilians and try them in military courts. [240] On 3 February, 4,000 protesters took to the streets to demand Mubarak's resignation. [392], Television, particularly live coverage by Al Jazeera English and BBC News, was important to the revolution; the cameras provided exposure, preventing mass violence by the government in Tahir Square (in contrast to the lack of live coverage and more-widespread violence in Libya). Prison inmates escaped en masse, in what was believed to be an attempt to terrorise protesters. Citizens formed neighbourhood-watch groups to maintain order, and widespread looting was reported. [28][29][30][31][32], On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak resigned as president, turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). [262][264], An Egyptian governmental fact-finding commission about the revolution announced on 19 April that at least 846 Egyptians died in the nearly three-week-long uprising. ... and the title alone spoke to the sense among Egypt's educated ... January 25th is "Police Day." [351] Among those who died was Sally Zahran, who was beaten to death during one of the demonstrations. Gamal Abdel Nasser's defeat brought Anwar Sadat to power after Nasser's death in 1970. [351], The Egyptian Armed Forces initially enjoyed a better public reputation than the police did; the former was seen as a professional body protecting the country, and the latter was accused of systemic corruption and lawless violence. Wael Ghonim's memorial Facebook page to Said grew to over 400,000 followers, creating an online arena where protestors and those discontented with the government could gather and organise. [78] Until 2005, Mubarak was the only presidential candidate (with a yes-or-no vote). Activist Ahmed Maher was released on Thursday, three days after he ended two prison terms. [118][119] Wael Ghonim, Google executive and creator of the page We are all Khaled Said, was reported missing and the company asked the public to help find him.[120]. [247] As a result of the decreased military border presence, Bedouin groups protected the borders and pledged their support of the revolution. [125][126], 6 March: From the Nasr City headquarters, protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote-rigging, noting rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents and cells in which activists recounted their experiences of detention and torture. See Public holidays in Libya. [290] He asked parliament for reforms: According to my constitutional powers, I call on parliament in both its houses to discuss amending article 76 and 77 of the constitution concerning the conditions on running for presidency of the republic and it sets specific a period for the presidential term. Disrupting the media and communication had 2 main results: it increased the local mobilization of people and empowered radicals who influenced their surroundings, which resulted in an increase in protests. The former president, his two sons and a business tycoon were acquitted of corruption charges because the statute of limitations had expired. [249], Before the protests six cases of self-immolation were reported, including a man arrested while trying to set himself afire in downtown Cairo. [121] Four important figures in the former regime were arrested that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi, former tourism minister H.E. [146][147][148], 24 January: Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi said that the decades-old state of emergency would be partially lifted the following day. Sends Specific Demands", "Mubarak leaves Cairo for Sinai as protests spread", "3 dead after thousands protest in rare Egypt outpouring", "مظاهرات مدينه الزقازيق محافظه الشرقيه 28 يناير", "Protests Swell in Rejection of Egypt"s Limited Reforms", "Sinai Bedouins support the #Jan25 Revolution بدو سيناء يعلنون تأييدهم للثورة المصرية " 3arabawy", "Sharm El-Sheikh's Tourists Talking About a Revolution", "Self-Immolation Spreads Across the Mideast, Inspiring Protest, Controversy", "Egyptians Set Themselves Ablaze After Tunisia Unrest", "Curfew Hours Extended in Egypt as Turmoil Continues", "Update 1-Death Toll in Egypt's Protests Tops 100 – Sources", "Azerbaijani Embassy Worker Shot Dead in Egypt, Ministry Says", "Ambassador: Embassy will continue providing necessary help to Azerbaijanis in Egypt", "Prosecutor General's Office Files Lawsuit on Murder of Accountant of Azerbaijani Embassy in Egypt", "Egypt Crisis: Country Braced for 'March of a Million, "Egypt: Rights Advocates Report Protest Death Toll as High as 300", "Egypt Unrest Claimed About 300 Lives – UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay", "UN Human Rights Chief: 300 Reported Dead in Egypt Protests", "Fact-Finding National Commission About 25 Jan Revolution Final Report", "At least 846 killed in Egypt's revolution", Senior al-Azhar Sheikh Emad Effat shot dead during Cairo protests, "Regional Reaction Mixed For Egypt Protests", "Travel warning issued, evacuation to start as protests continue in Egypt", "Factbox: International Reaction to Egyptian Protests", "Egypt Protests Draw Mixed Reaction in Region", "Israel's Big Fears over a Post-Mubarak Egypt", "Israel Urges World To Curb Criticism of Egypt's Mubarak", "Amnesty International Rebukes Egyptian Leaders for "Failed" Response to Protest Demands Organization Says Leaders' Efforts to Discourage Protests are "Unacceptable, "Foreign governments, businesses begin evacuations from Egypt", "Mubarak Steps Down: Reactions From Around the World", "Follow Egypt's Example, Obama Tells Mideast", "Hillary Clinton Egypt Trip Marks Highest Level Visit Since Mubarak's Ouster", "Protesters Return to Cairo's Main Square – Egyptian President Fires His Cabinet But Refuses To Step Down", "Choice of Suleiman Likely to Please the Military, Not the Crowds", "Mubarak Swears in New Cabinet – Egypt's President Appoints New Cabinet in an Attempt To Quell Ongoing Mass Street Protests Against His Rule", "Mubarak Orders State Subsidies – Hosni Mubarak Ordered His New PM To Preserve Subsidies, Control Inflation and Provide More Jobs", "NDP Official: President To Run for 6th Term; Gamal Mubarak Candidacy 'Delusory, "Defiant Mubarak Vows To Finish Term – Violence Erupts in Alexandria Shortly After Egyptian President's Announcement That He Will Not Seek Another Term", "Hosni Mubarak's Speech: Full Text – Egypt President Delivers TV Address to the Nation – and Pledges To Step Down at the Next Election and Pave Way for New Leader", "ElBaradei Back in Egypt; Says It's Time for a New Government: The Two-Way", "Egypt Cuts Off Most Internet and Cell Service", "Vodafone confirms role in Egypt's cellular, Internet blackout", "Digital Darkness: U.S., U.K. Companies Help Egyptian Regime Shut Down Telecommunications and Identify Dissident Voices", "Egypt: A List of Demands from Tahrir Square", "Basic minimum wage jumps from EGP 250 to EGP 870", "Egypt state of emergency lifted after 31 years", Egypt dissolves notorious internal security agency, "Egypt restores feared secret police units", "Egypt's Suleiman says will not run for president", "Egypt's military council lifts nightly curfew", "The Most Powerful Weapon of Egypt's Ruling Generals: State TV", "Mubarak sentenced to jail for life over protest deaths", "Brotherhood's Mursi sworn in as Egyptian president", "Egypt recognizes moderate Islamic party, promises to release political prisoners", "Muslim Brotherhood to establish 'Freedom and Justice Party, "The Muslim Brotherhood Official English Website", "Muslim Brotherhood sits at Egypt's new democratic table", "Muslim Brothers see corruption-free Egypt flourishing", "Egypt's Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq resigns", "Egypte: le Premier ministre remplacé, satisfaction des opposants", "Meet Essam Sharaf: Egypt's first post-revolution Prime Minister", "Egypt's Elaraby accepts foreign minister post", "Egypt: Hosni Mubarak and sons to be tried over deaths and should be killed for their crimes", "Mubarak family fortune could reach $70bn, say experts", "مصطفى الفقى: شخصية كبيرة فى الرئاسة أكدت لى أن "مبارك" لن يترشح وابنه سيكون البديل", "Egypt Issues Travel Ban, Asset Freeze on Mubarak", "الشريف ينفي امتلاكه حسابات خاصة خارج مصر", "Hussein Salem caught in Dubai with $500m", "5 مارس.. بدء محاكمة العادلي أمام الجنايات", "Secularism is what the Arab world needs – Blog Post", "An upside of Arab revolts: Islamists talk democracy", "Egyptian Voters Approve Constitutional Changes", "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood to Rejoin Protests", "Egypt Church Blast Death Toll Rises to 23", "Egypt bomb kills 21 at Alexandria Coptic church", "Coptic Church in Egypt Is Hit by Fatal Bomb Attack", "Clashes Grow as Egyptians Remain Angry After an Attack", "Egypt Media Warn of Civil War after Bombing", "Egypt Orders Tighter Security After Church Bombing", "Tuesday's papers: Funeral for martyr journalist, Ghoneim release, al-Adli under investigation", "The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution", "NASA rocket to bear name of Egyptian woman killed in protests", "Key members of Egypt Armed Forces Supreme Council", "All Eyes on Egypt's Military as Hosni Mubarak Fortifies Position", "In Egypt, Inclusive Democracy is no Longer just a Suggestion", "WikiLeaks cables: Egyptian military head is 'old and resistant to change, "Egypt: Admission of forced 'virginity tests' must lead to justice – Amnesty International", "Video: Tahrir Square Egypt Army Attack Protesters 8/9 April 2011 (Youtube)", The "Maspero Crime": Accounts Against the Counter-Revolution, "Egypt's generals defy Tahrir protests over elections", "Tahrir Square rally denounces violence against protesters", "Why Egypt's Class Conflict Is Boiling Over – Juan Cole: How Decades of Economic Stumbles Set the Stage for Egypt's Current Political Turmoil", "6 April Youth Movement – حركة شباب 6 إبريل", "Women play vital role in Egypt's uprising", "Can Egypt's Internet Movement Be Exported? ... Below is a collection of photographs and videos from the 18 days. April 6’s Ahmed Maher Released from Prison. 25 January Revolution Day 2021, 2022 and 2023 in Egypt 25 January Revolution Day commemorates the beginning of protests in 2011 that eventually led to the resignation of 30-year ruling Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. Although opposition groups and international election-monitoring agencies charged that the elections were rigged, those agencies were not allowed to monitor elections. Among those charged were Mubarak, his wife Suzanne, his sons Gamal and Alaa, former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former housing minister Ahmed El-Maghrabi, former tourism minister Zoheir Garana and former secretary for organizational affairs of the National Democratic Party Ahmed Ezz. The Egyptian parliament was dissolved, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces resumed legislative authority. [394], Journalism scholar Heather Ford studied the use of infoboxes and cleanup templates in the Wikipedia article regarding the revolution. On 24 January Mahfouz posted another video relating efforts made in support of the protest, from printing posters to creating flyers. Critics who downplay the influence of social networking on the Arab Spring cite several points: Some protesters discouraged the use of social media. The January 25 Revolution was a call for change. [400] Since its beginning, artists played a significant role in the protests; street art and music (electro or techno sha'bi) were used to craft a public culture. Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and some critics, due to his authoritarian rule. [356][357][358] One analyst, conceding the military's conservatism, says it has no option but to facilitate democratisation. The Egyptian and Tunisian revolutions sparked a wave of uprisings, with demonstrations spreading across the Middle East and North Africa. Egypt: The January 25 Uprising and Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy Congressional Research Service 1 The January 25 Revolution in Egypt: Latest Developments, U.S. Foreign Policy, and Issues for the 112th Congress Note: A narrative summary of recent events is presented in … The campaign said, "President Mubarak and his son constantly denied even the possibility of [succession]. [341][342] Some Copts accused the Egyptian government of negligence;[343] after the attack, many Christians protested in the streets (with Muslims joining later). Egypt: Unrest in 2011: January 25 Revolution Days after a popular uprising in Tunisia, known as the Jasmine Revolution, forced Pres. [69] On 6 June 2010 Khaled Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi Gaber area of Alexandria, with witnesses testifying that he was beaten to death by police – an event which galvanized Egyptians around the issue of police brutality. [339], Early on New Year's Day 2011 a bomb exploded in front of an Alexandria church, killing 23 Coptic Christians. [144], 28 November 2011 – 11 January 2012: Parliamentary elections, 17 December 2011: The Institute d'Egypte caught fire during clashes between protesters and Egyptian military; thousands of rare documents burned. Instead of resigning (which was widely expected), he said he would delegate some powers to Vice President Suleiman while remaining Egypt's head of state. When a permanent constitution is approved, a parliamentary election will be held within a month to replace the dissolved parliament. [citation needed] On 28 January, 13 were reported dead in violent clashes; on 9 February, 18 more protesters died. [256] That day, an employee of the Azerbaijani embassy in Cairo was killed on their way home from work;[257] the following day, Azerbaijan sent a plane to evacuate citizens[258] and opened a criminal investigation into the killing. [312] On 20 February Yehia El Gamal [ar], an activist and law professor, accepted on television the position of deputy prime minister. [145], 23 January 2012: Democratically elected representatives of the People's Assembly met for the first time since Egypt's revolution, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces gave them legislative authority. Morsi also issued a temporary presidential decree that raised his decisions over judicial review to enable the passing of the constitution. [162], 12 June: When the Egyptian parliament met to vote for members of a constitutional assembly dozens of secular MPs walked out, accusing Islamist parties of trying to dominate the panel. tahrir square, referendum, muslim brotherhood, january 25 revolution, hosni mubarak, elections, egypt, abdel fattah al-sisi Jan 23, 2014 CAIRO — As Egypt's interim president and ministers of defense and interior celebrated the third anniversary of the January 25 Revolution, countless authors and TV show hosts continued to smear the uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak's dictatorship. However, pictures of Khaled's disfigured corpse from the morgue showed signs of torture. [336], The military has led a violent crackdown on the Egyptian revolution since the fall of Mubarak. As the protests began, Google executive Wael Ghonim revealed that he was behind the account. The European Union Foreign Affairs Chief said, "I also reiterate my call upon the Egyptian authorities to urgently establish a constructive and peaceful way to respond to the legitimate aspirations of Egyptian citizens for democratic and socioeconomic reforms. Year. Demands stemming from the main four include the following: On 17 February, an Egyptian prosecutor ordered the detention of three former ministers (interior minister Habib el-Adli, tourism minister Zuhair Garana and housing minister Ahmed el-Maghrabi) and steel magnate Ahmed Ezz pending trial for wasting public funds. January 25th was an official holiday in Egypt known as Police Day, which celebrated the Egyptian police for protecting the Egyptian people when they resisted British forces in Ismailia in 1952. The remote city of Siwa had been relatively calm,[237] but local sheikhs reportedly in control put the community under lockdown after a nearby town was burned. Ahmed Nazmi, one of the … At least three people have been killed in a day of rare anti-government protests across Egypt inspired by the uprising in Tunisia. [132], 7 May: The Imbaba church attacks, in which Salafi Muslims attacked Coptic Christian churches in the working-class neighborhood of Imbaba in Cairo.[133]. Al-Zumar, one of the demonstrations influencing the people often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and critics. Six years ago, the movement had a secular feel children ) supported the protests to economic. Take any measures necessary to protect their neighborhoods the Party 's policy committee 23 marks the of. The chaos, there were apparently no other heirs to the streets in protest to. ] Mahfouz 's use of social media also provided a tool for women, who was to... The leadership of the Armed forces with the most dynamic debates these elements, editors the... Call it, is the increase in population, and then YouTube name one of Egypt 's political. 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