[86] The rise to power of powerful businessmen in the NDP, the government and the House of Representatives led to public anger during the Ahmed Nazif government. 1 July ("Friday of Retribution"): Thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square to voice frustration with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what they called the slow pace of change, five months after the revolution, some also feared that the military is to rule Egypt indefinitely. Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDS) maintained one-party rule. Later that night clashes broke out in Tahrir Square between revolutionaries and pro-Mubarak demonstrators, leading to casualties. [158][159][160][161], 8 June: Political factions tentatively agreed to a deal to form a new constitutional assembly, consisting of 100 members who will draft the new constitution. National Police Day in Egypt Date in the current year: January 25, 2020 National Police Day is a professional holiday in Egypt observed annually on January 25. The Egyptian parliament was dissolved, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces resumed legislative authority. Egypt: Unrest in 2011: January 25 Revolution Days after a popular uprising in Tunisia, known as the Jasmine Revolution, forced Pres. "[272] The United States, the United Kingdom, France and Germany issued similar statements calling for reform and an end to violence against peaceful protesters. The Salafis and others from the opposition demonstrated on Friday, January 21 against the killing of Syed Bilal and was confined to the mosques after Friday prayers, I have to be with their brothers of the young people of Egypt on 25 January to demand the resignation of Interior Minister Habib al-Adli and accountability of the killers of Mr. Bilal and the abolition of emergency law. He asked the government, formed only months ago, to step down and promised that a new government would be formed. There was no indication that the government investigated either case. A curfew was imposed, which was widely ignored as the flow of protesters into Tahrir Square continued through the night. This article is more ... Tue 25 Jan 2011 21.11 EST. Maher, co-founder of... Aswat Masriya January 5, 2017. [356][357][358] One analyst, conceding the military's conservatism, says it has no option but to facilitate democratisation. [citation needed] During the protests, reporters Natasha Smith, Lara Logan and Mona Eltahawy were sexually assaulted while covering the events.[233][234][235][236]. ), An important analysis of the Egyptian revolution and counter-revolution, "Egyptian and Arab Revolution Scholarly Works", Demonstrations in Tahrir Square: Two Years Later, What has Changed? [173][174], 16–17 June: Second round of voting in the Egyptian presidential election. [168][169][170][171][172], 15 June: Security forces were stationed around Parliament to bar anyone, including lawmakers, from entering the chambers without official authorisation. In Tahrir Square, female protesters (some with children) supported the protests. [192][193][194][195][196][197], 26 June: The Supreme Administrative Court revoked Decree No. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali from power, protests against the Mubarak regime erupted on January 25, 2011. The court ruled that all articles making up the law regulating the 2011 parliamentary elections were invalid, upholding a lower-court ruling which found that candidates running on party slates were allowed to contest the one-third of parliamentary seats reserved for independents. [397], The 25 January Revolution and the fall of Hosni Mubarak the following month ushered in a new artistic era reflecting a changed social and political environment;[399] "the revolution triggered a new public culture". The page called for protests on 25 January, later known as the "Day of Wrath". [185][186][187][188][189][190][191], 24 June: Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi, the first Islamist elected head of an Arab state, is declared the winner of the presidential election by the Egyptian electoral commission. [78] Until 2005, Mubarak was the only presidential candidate (with a yes-or-no vote). The self-immolators included Abdou Abdel-Moneim Jaafar,[251] Mohammed Farouk Hassan,[252] Mohammed Ashour Sorour[253] and Ahmed Hashim al-Sayyed, who later died from his injuries. The public holiday is a paid vacation for all civil servants in ministries and governmental institutions as well as the companies affiliated to the public, business and private sectors. Disrupting the media and communication had 2 main results: it increased the local mobilization of people and empowered radicals who influenced their surroundings, which resulted in an increase in protests. 25 January Revolution Day 2021, 2022 and 2023 in Egypt 25 January Revolution Day commemorates the beginning of protests in 2011 that eventually led to the resignation of 30-year ruling Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. The videos were posted on Facebook and then YouTube. 28 January 2011: The "Friday of Anger" protests began, with hundreds of thousands demonstrating in Cairo and other Egyptian cities after Friday prayers. The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights documented 30 cases of torture during the year 2009. Traffic police were reintroduced to Cairo the morning of 31 January. As Revolution Day falls on a Friday, Thursday will be observed as a holiday. The day celebrates the beginning of the Egyptian revolution of 2011. [87] Aladdin Elaasar, an Egyptian biographer and American professor, estimated that the Mubarak family was worth from $50 to $70 billion. The breakdown of law and order, including the general absence of police from the streets, continued until the evening of 3 February. [350] In earlier protests in Egypt, women only accounted for about 10 per cent of the protesters, but on Tahrir Square they accounted for about 40 to 50 per cent in the days leading up to the fall of Mubarak. 2 years ago . [215] Protesters again erected tents in Tahrir Square, demanding a reversal of the declaration and the dissolving of the constituent assembly. The revolution's primary demands, chanted at every protest, were bread (jobs), freedom, social justice and human dignity. On 7 February a complaint was filed against Habib al-Adly (interior minister until Mubarak dissolved the government during the protests' early days), accusing him of directing the attack. 6 February 2011: An interfaith service was held with Egyptian Christians and Muslims in Tahrir Square. The day celebrates the beginning of the Egyptian revolution of 2011. Their motto was “Bread, Freedom, Social Justice.” Only patriotism chants were kept up without any mention of partisan or ideological slogans. Sadat neglected the modernization of Egypt, and his cronyism cost the country infrastructure industries which could generate new jobs. [359] During the night of 8 April 2011 military police attacked a sit-in in Tahrir Square by protesters and sympathetic military officers, killing at least one. [132], 7 May: The Imbaba church attacks, in which Salafi Muslims attacked Coptic Christian churches in the working-class neighborhood of Imbaba in Cairo.[133]. The public holiday is a paid vacation for all civil servants in ministries and governmental institutions as well as the companies affiliated to the public, business and private sectors. During the past few years, however, it has been overshadowed by a national holiday entitled 25 January Revolution Day. [69] On 6 June 2010 Khaled Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi Gaber area of Alexandria, with witnesses testifying that he was beaten to death by police – an event which galvanized Egyptians around the issue of police brutality. On 24 January Mahfouz posted another video relating efforts made in support of the protest, from printing posters to creating flyers. Sadat undid Nasser's social reforms and dependence on the Soviet Union, predicting its collapse nearly two decades before it occurred. January 2011: Activists in Egypt ... January 25: On a national ... AFP news agency reports five were dead and 100 are wounded in the clashes that have been going on for two days… [74], During the January–February 2011 protests, police brutality was common. By Mai Shams El-Din and Safaa Abdoun CAIRO: The Front to Defend Egypt’s Protesters confirmed in a press conference on Wednesday that the death toll of the Jan. 25 Revolution has gone up to 686, most of them killed during the “Friday of Anger” on Jan. 28. "[316], On 3 March, Prime Minister Shafiq submitted his resignation to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Revolution Day January 25 is a national holiday in Egypt that is observed on January 25th. [75][76][77], Corruption, coercion not to vote and manipulation of election results occurred during many elections over Mubarak's 30-year rule. Their Facebook forum features intense and heated discussions, and is frequently updated. An important aspect of the relationship between the Egyptian and American military establishments is the $1.3 billion in annual military aid provided to Egypt, which pays for American-made military equipment and allows Egyptian officers to train in the U.S. Guaranteed this aid package, the ruling SCAF is resistant to reform. [364], Foreign governments in the West (including the U.S.) regarded Mubarak as an important ally and supporter in the Israeli–Palestinian peace negotiations. Famous Birthdays on January 25. [355], As head of Egypt's armed forces, Tantawi has been described as "aged and change-resistant" and is attached to the old regime. January 25 revolution Net foreign reserves up to US$44.11 billion: CBE. Protesters in Tahrir Square continued demanding his ouster, since a vice-president and prime minister were already appointed. [320][321], On 16 April the Higher Administrative Court dissolved the former ruling National Democratic Party (NDP), ordering its funds and property to be transferred to the government. Participation was low with only 38.6% of registered voters participating[227] although this was higher than the 33% who voted in a referendum during Morsi's tenure. He pledged political reforms and said he would not run in the elections planned for September, but would remain in office to oversee a peaceful transition. [28][29][30][31][32], On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak resigned as president, turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). ", "Trade unions: the revolutionary social network at play in Egypt and Tunisia", "Protests in Egypt and unrest in Middle East – as it happened", "Unease in Egypt as police replaced by army, neighbors band against looters", "The Army's OK with the Protesters, for now", "Mubarak plays last card, the army; Police vanish", "Egypt: From Police State to Military Rule", "Egypt's military dismantles Mubarak regime", "Muslim Brotherhood's Mohamed Morsi declared president of Egypt", "President Morsi in Egypt Seizes New Powers", "Morsi ousted, under house arrest, as crowds celebrate in Cairo", "The Simplest Explanation of Egypt's Revolution You'll Ever Read", "Sisi elected Egypt president by landslide", "Egypt: The Bread and Freedom Revolution |A Global Revolution", "The 25 January Revolution (Special issue)", "Egyptian-American leaders call for U.S. support of 'Lotus Revolution, "Business News » Investors See White Revolution in Egypt", "Egyptians abroad speak out against inheritance of power", "How Gamal brought down the whole Mubarak house", "Egypt unrest: Anti-Mubarak protesters fight back", "Egypt and The Impact of 27 years of Emergency on Human Rights", "Egypt After 9/11: Perceptions of the United States", "Egyptian bloggers brave police intimidation", "Egyptian Elections: Independents Fight for Hearts and Minds in 'Fixed Ballot, "Egypt: Keep Promise to Free Detainees by End of June: Joint Statement", "Egyptian Lawyer's Death Triggers Cairo Protests", "US reported 'routine' police brutality in Egypt, WikiLeaks cables show", "US embassy cables: Police brutality in Egypt", "Arab countries' secret police forces have a reputation for torture and arbitrary arrests", "Anger in Alexandria: 'We're Afraid of Our Own Government, "Two Witnesses Affirm Alexandria Victim Beaten by Police", "How Cairo, U.S. Were Blindsided by Revolution", "Bloody and Bruised: The Journalist Caught in Egypt Unrest", "Subject: Struggling to Address Police Brutality", "Final Report: Assessment of the Electoral Framework in the Arab Republic of Egypt", "Central Agency for Population Mobilisation and Statistics — Population Clock (July 2008)", "The long-term economic challenges Egypt must overcome", "Egypt's Mubarak Likely to Retain Vast Wealth", "Obama optimistic about Egypt as negotiators make concessions", "How did Egypt become so corrupt? 23 July: Thousands of protesters attempted to march to the defense ministry after a speech by Mohammed Tantawi commemorating the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but are met with counter-insurgents with sticks, stones and Molotov cocktails. [368] In March 2012 it had 325,000[369] predominantly young and members, most previously inactive politically, whose concerns included free speech, nepotism in government and the country's stagnant economy. January 25, like all major revolutions in the history, did not immediately achieve all of its goals, but certainly achieved some of them. Libya, February 17 (2011). [127], 19 March: The constitutional referendum passed with 77.27 percent of the vote. Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDS) maintained one-party rule. No fatalities have been reported in Cairo, however, 11 people were killed in Suez and another 170 were injured.1,030 people were reported injured nationwide. [93][94], Following the ousting of Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali after mass protests, many analysts (including former European Commission President Romano Prodi) saw Egypt as the next country where such a revolution might occur. Prisons were opened and burned down, allegedly on orders from Interior Minister Habib El Adly. [324] Mubarak's ouster was followed by allegations of corruption against other government officials and senior politicians. [142], 20 November: Police attempted to forcibly clear the square, but protesters returned in more than double their original numbers. Feburary 2, 2011: Battle of the Camel. [118][119] Wael Ghonim, Google executive and creator of the page We are all Khaled Said, was reported missing and the company asked the public to help find him.[120]. [125][126], 6 March: From the Nasr City headquarters, protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote-rigging, noting rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents and cells in which activists recounted their experiences of detention and torture. Journalism (2014): 1464884914545739. The New York Times has called it the political Facebook group in Egypt with the most dynamic debates. The European Union Foreign Affairs Chief said, "I also reiterate my call upon the Egyptian authorities to urgently establish a constructive and peaceful way to respond to the legitimate aspirations of Egyptian citizens for democratic and socioeconomic reforms. The day was selected by youth movements to be in conjunction with the National Police Holiday; to showcase their stand against the constant burgeoning police brutality during the 30 years of … [220] Protesters defied a government-imposed curfew, which was impossible to enforce by the police and military. The Ghad El-Thawra Party, Karama, Wafd and Democratic Front supported the protests. [45] After wars with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, Egypt signed a peace treaty in 1979 (provoking controversy in the Arab world). Mohammed Farouq Mohammed, who is a lawyer, also set himself afire in front of the parliament to protest his ex-wife, who did not allow him to see his daughters. [352], The participation and contributions by Egyptian women to the protests were attributed to the fact that many (especially younger women) were better educated than previous generations and represent more than half of Egyptian university students. [317][318][319] Sharaf appointed former International Court of Justice judge Nabil Elaraby foreign minister and Mansour El Essawi as interior minister. [260] By 1 February the protests left at least 125 people dead,[261] although Human Rights Watch said that UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay claimed that as many as 300 might have died in the unrest. Maurushat, Alana, Chawki, Mohammed, Al-Alosi, Hadeel, and el Shazly, Yassin (2014), "The Impact of Social Networks and Mobile Technologies on the Revolutions in the Arab World—A Study of Egypt and Tunisia". Analysts described Mubarak's last decade in power as "the age of Gamal Mubarak". [163], 13 June: After Egypt's military government imposed de facto martial law (extending the arrest powers of security forces), Egyptian Revolution | Cairo, January 25th 2011. On one front was social media giving minute by minute updates via YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, and in the other hand was the use of the mainstream media to report to a wider audience about the overall developments occurring in Egypt. On 12 August, the same blogger posted two videos of alleged police torture of a man in a Port Said police station by the head of investigations, Mohammed Abu Ghazala. These dates may be modified as official changes are announced, so please check back regularly for updates. Read More . A "huge protest" was planned for Tuesday, 27 November,[216] with clashes reported between protesters and police. Cairo has been at the centre of the revolution; the largest protests were held in downtown Tahrir Square, considered the "protest movement's beating heart and most effective symbol". Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei arrived in Cairo amid reports of looting. 8 April ("Cleansing Friday"): Tens of thousands of demonstrators again filled Tahrir Square, criticizing the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for not following through on their demands: the resignation of remaining regime figures and the removal of Egypt's public prosecutor, due to the slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials. [395], Social media helped secure solidarity for the revolutionaries from people outside of Egypt. [336], Since the revolution Islamist parties (such as the Muslim Brotherhood) have strengthened in the democratic landscape, leading constitutional change, voter mobilization and protests. Eight years ago on this day, Jan. 25, the world watched transfixed as protesters in Egypt poured into the streets and squares demanding change from the corrupt authoritarian regime of … The campaign said, "President Mubarak and his son constantly denied even the possibility of [succession]. [362] On 16 December 2011 military forces dispersed a sit-in at the Cabinet of Ministers building, killing 17. Eight years after Egypt’s revolution, here’s what we’ve learned about social media and protest Egyptians wave the national flag in Cairo’s Tahrir Square during a rally on Jan. 25, 2014. The attack resulted in 3 deaths and 600 injuries. [129], 23 March: The Egyptian Cabinet ordered a law criminalising protests and strikes which hamper work at private or public establishments. Egypt's revolution began on 25 January, the "Day of Revolt", when tens of thousands of marchers occupied Cairo's Tahrir Square to protest against President Hosni Mubarak and … The British Oxford Economic Atlas of the World, 4th edition. Despite recent high national economic growth, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained relatively poor[85] (albeit better than other African nations[83] with no significant social upheavals). The foreign minister was requested to contact European countries to freeze the other defendants' accounts. ... and the title alone spoke to the sense among Egypt's educated ... January 25th is "Police Day." [394] The ability of protesters to focus their demonstrations on a single area (with live coverage) was fundamental in Egypt but impossible in Libya, Bahrain and Syria, irrespective of social-media use. [1][3] The protesters' primary demands were the end of the Mubarak regime. [104] Public figures, including novelist Alaa Al Aswany, writer Belal Fadl and actors Amr Waked and Khaled Aboul Naga, announced that they would participate. This is evident through movements like the "March of Millions", "Voice of Egypt Abroad", "Egyptians Abroad in Support of Egypt" and "New United Arab States", who had their inception during the revolution inside the realms of Twitter and Facebook. With his father's health declining and no appointed vice-president, Gamal was considered Egypt's de facto president by some. [262][264], An Egyptian governmental fact-finding commission about the revolution announced on 19 April that at least 846 Egyptians died in the nearly three-week-long uprising. How the January 25 Egyptian Revolution Was Organized. Activist Ahmed Maher was released on Thursday, three days after he ended two prison terms. To the People Of Egypt In regards to the Jan 25 Revolution. [335] Another journalist, Shlomo Ben-Ami, said that Egypt's most formidable task was to refute the old paradigm of the Arab world which sees the only choices for regimes repressive, secular dictatorships or repressive theocracies. Reimbursing shop owners for losses during the curfew, 13. The only opposition presidential candidate in recent Egyptian history, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned before the 2005 elections. Twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental[105] in sparking the protests. 25 January Revolution - A total of 1,280 prisoners were released by a presidential decree on the occasion of the revolution commemoration and National Police Day [348], Egyptian women have been participating actively in the revolution, in the same way that they played an active role in the strike movement in the few last years, in several cases pressurizing the men to join the strikes. Since 25 January 2011, videos (including those of a badly beaten Khaled Said, disproving police claims that he had choked to death), tweets and Facebook comments have kept the world abreast of the situation in Egypt. [48] Gamal began receiving attention from the Egyptian media, since there were apparently no other heirs to the presidency. That day, Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq also said that 222 political prisoners would be released. [44], Hosni Mubarak became President of Egypt after the assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981. In order for the current parliament in both houses to be able to discuss these constitutional amendments and the legislative amendments linked to it for laws that complement the constitution and to ensure the participation of all the political forces in these discussions, I demand parliament to adhere to the word of the judiciary and its verdicts concerning the latest cases which have been legally challenged. Release of those imprisoned since 25 January, 10. "[91], During the 2010 elections, opposition groups complained about government harassment and fraud. The 2011 revolution in Egypt … [254], As of 30 January, Al Jazeera reported as many as 150 deaths in the protests. ", "Egypt: Gene Sharp Taught Us How To Revolt! History of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Khaled Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances, Peterson Institute for International Economics, constitutional provisions affecting elections, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Timeline of the Egyptian revolution of 2011, Timeline of the Egyptian Crisis under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution (Post-revolution timeline), International reactions to the Egyptian revolution of 2011, Domestic responses to the Egyptian revolution of 2011, Egyptian constitutional review committee of 2011, Trials and judicial hearings following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Muslim Brotherhood in post-Mubarak electoral politics of Egypt, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, "Egypt activists plan biggest protest yet on Friday", "Egypt protests a ticking time bomb: Analysts", "Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis", "Egypt's prime minister quits, new govt soon-army", Egypt's Mubarak Steps Down; Military Takes Over, "Egypt's military moves to dissolve parliament, suspend constitution", http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/04/2011416125051889315.html, "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held", "Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters", "Egypt's state of emergency ends after 31 years", "Mohammed Morsi sworn in as Egypt's president", "Estimated 2 Million People Protest in _ Around Tahrir Square in Cairo Egypt.mp4 | Current News World Web Source for News and Information", "Activists on Facebook: the military killed 99 and wounded 2702 in 10 months", "Egypt's revolution death toll rises to 384", "Egypt's army fails to grasp the post-Mubarak realities – The National", Egyptian-American leaders call for U.S. support of 'Lotus Revolution' – CNN.com, "شيحة: مكاتب الصحة وثقت سقوط 840 شهيداً خلال ثورة 25 يناير", "Egypt: Cairo's Tahrir Square fills with protesters", "Was the Egyptian revolution really non-violent? The Egyptian revolution of 2011, also known as the 25 January Revolution (Arabic: ثورة 25 يناير ‎; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), started on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.The date was set by various youth groups to coincide with the annual Egyptian "Police holiday" as a statement against increasing police brutality during the last few years of Mubarak's presidency. US edition; UK edition; ... Egypt. Bloggers and citizen journalists used Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, blogs and other media tools to report on the strike, alert their networks about police activity, organize legal protection and draw attention to their efforts. [203][204][205], 30 June: Morsi was sworn in as Egypt's first democratically elected president before the Supreme Constitutional Court at the podium used by U.S. President Barack Obama to reach out to the Islamic world in 2009 in his A New Beginning speech.[206][207][208][209][210]. Prison inmates escaped en masse, in what was believed to be an attempt to terrorise protesters. CAIRO - 24 January 2017: Millions of Egyptians took to the streets in the January 25 Revolution over 18 days in 2011. Read More. They originally intended their sit-ins to celebrate Morsi's one-year anniversary, but they quickly became opposed to the new authorities. He witnessed fellow Egyptian protesters being tortured, assaulted, and taken to undisclosed locations by police officers. [231] During the first three days of the protests there were clashes between the central security police and demonstrators, but on 28 January the police withdrew from all of Cairo. However, secular forces emerged from the revolution espousing principles shared with religious groups: freedom, social justice and dignity. [1], According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics and other proponents of demographic structural approach (cliodynamics), a basic problem in Egypt is unemployment driven by a demographic youth bulge; with the number of new people entering the workforce at about four percent a year, unemployment in Egypt is almost 10 times as high for college graduates as for those who finished elementary school (particularly educated urban youth—the people who were in the streets during the revolution).[83][84]. [26] During the uprising, the capital, Cairo, was described as "a war zone"[27] and the port city of Suez saw frequent violent clashes. Key Egyptian military personnel include defense minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and armed forces chief of staff Sami Hafez Enan. The "Day of Rage." It is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed. [34], After the revolution against Mubarak and a period of rule by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the Muslim Brotherhood took power in Egypt through a series of popular elections, with Egyptians electing Islamist Mohamed Morsi to the presidency in June 2012, after winning the election over Ahmed Shafik. Elections were held in September 2011, with Liberty and Justice (the Muslim Brotherhood party) winning 48.5 percent of the vote. [201][202], 29 June: Mohamed Morsi took a symbolic oath of office in Tahrir Square, affirming that the people are the source of power. Islamist organisations emerged with a greater freedom to operate. 1 August: Egyptian soldiers clashed with protesters, tearing down tents. [244], There were protests in Luxor. [312] On 20 February Yehia El Gamal [ar], an activist and law professor, accepted on television the position of deputy prime minister. The 25th of January marks the Day celebrates the beginning of protests in Egypt ( known. 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