Kazakhstan’s 3.7 million Russians are the second biggest ethnic group in this vast country, and as such may have an important role in future Russian-Kazakh relations. This phenomenon affected each of the republics differently. Although the process of Kazakhization of the education system has proved more complex than authorities expected, it seems that now the future development of the Kazakh language is secure.” [Source: Sebastien Peyrouse, “Russian Minority in Central Asia: Migration, Politics, and Language”, Woodrow Wilson Institute, 2007 ^^], In universities “the authorities give priority to Kazakh-language education and clearly support such courses to the detriment of Russian, particularly at the prominent universities in Almaty and Astana. More than 60,000 Kazakhs emigrated from Mongolia in 1991-94, their settlement--or resettlement--eased by government assistance. The increased numbers of Russians arriving from other CIS nations create both logistical and political problems. In 2003, this maximum was further reduced, to 20 percent. Presided over by Nursultan Nazarbayev, the institution does not hide its close ties to the authorities. Kazakhstan and Russian experts debate bilateral relations agenda . This allowed the Russians more flexibility in sending payloads to space. Their appeal says the percentage of Russians in Kazakhstan went down from … *, Russian Education and Media in Kazakhstan, Sebastien Peyrouse of the Woodrow Wilson Institute wrote: “According to data released in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, 1.6 million students (50.6 percent of all students in the country) were studying in Kazakh, versus 1.5 million (45 percent) who were studying in Russian. Language issues became particularly politicized there, as state bodies attempted to impose the supremacy of Kazakh over Russian with mixed results. [Source: Library of Congress, March 1996 *], Sebastien Peyrouse of the Woodrow Wilson Institute wrote: “The Kazakh language has encountered difficulty finding its place, even with the Kazakh population, which is largely Russophone. 8 months ago. Korean is totally different language and that knowledge will not help you, to be honest. Fifty-five percent understand parts of sentences and 22 percent admit that they neither speak nor understand Kazakh. [Source: Library of Congress, December, 2006 **], According to a 2003 study, Only 3 percent of Russians in Kazakhstan speak Kazakh well, 23 percent speak it with some difficulty, and 74 percent do not speak it at all. Many people want Russian to be the first language. I feel like I need to get this out of the way first. Outflow of Non-Kazakhs and Inflow of Kazakhs to Kazakhstan, In the early 1990s, the republic experienced a pronounced outflow of citizens, primarily non-Kazakhs moving to other former Soviet republics. [Source: Library of Congress, March 1996 *], The issue of languages is one of the most politicized and contentious in Kazakhstan. The alleged democratic role of this institution is ambiguous because no elections are involved, that is to say, the authorities appoint its members. The controversial “Go To” domestic tourism subsidy has come under the microscope for possibly facilitating the nation’s explosion of coronavirus cases. Such tensions come with a pair of concomitant realities beyond Astana’s control. 4,000,000 in 2007. for Us. After recording the first locally transmitted case in November, Mongolia’s local cases of COVID-19 have surpassed imported cases. [Source: Sebastien Peyrouse, “Russian Minority in Central Asia: Migration, Politics, and Language”, Woodrow Wilson Institute, 2007 ^^], Russians complain that Kazakhs control the government and get picked over them for jobs. To most Kazakhs, these Russians are usurpers. “I reached the agreement with the president of Russia on the construction of the plant for the production of the Russian vaccine. It seems there is a new wave of ethnic Russians departing Kazakhstan. China is planning to focus on Shenzhen as a new global hub. One Russian man told the New York Times, “Many highly-skilled specialists are leaving for better salaries in Russia or to emigrate to Germany. The “Russian question,” which agitated the republic in the first half of the 1990s, has dropped off the political radar and no longer poses a threat to stability. Russians are the largest minority in Kazakhstan. The proportion of Russians in the ministry dropped sharply, from 43 percent in 1989 to 14 percent in 1992. There are worries that racial tensions might explode when Nazarbayev dies or is ousted as the majority Kazakhs try to gain greater control. An agreement was reached during a meeting between Kazakhstan President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev and Russian Presidential Administration deputy head Dmitry Kozak, TASS reported citing a diplomatic source on December 3. To institute the use of Kazakh in public administration, the government promulgated the Design of the Linguistic Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, promulgated in 1996, the Law on the Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 11, 1997, and the State Program on the Operation and Development of Languages for the Decade 2001–2010. China's massive investments in Ethiopia give it a lot to lose amid renewed sectarian violence. Credit: David de Rueda Kazakhstan’s total oil production in 2017 climbed 10.5%. The government for a long time resisted making Russian an official second language, although Russian is understood by most Kazakhs and used in most official communications. In 1992 and 1993, the number of Russian emigrants was estimated at 100,000 to 300,000. Click here to subscribe for full access. During the Soviet period, all Soviet Republics including Kazakhstan were expected to adopt Russian as their primary language. In the second half of the decade, the majority-Slavic regions in the north, and east of Kazakhstan also began to lose population. Now it is an official language. It also exports oil directly to China. The Russians deal particularly poorly with the Kazakhization of the administration in regions where they still constitute the majority. If you know English, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, you can speak almost with everyone around the world. In Turkmenistan, the new government has recently invited famous Russian universities such as the Moscow State University and the Gubkin Institute for Oil and Gas Studies to open affiliates in Ashgabat, perhaps even in time for the 2008 academic year.” ^^, “Newspapers from Russia are increasingly difficult to obtain. Many Russians in Kazakhstan and Russia are angry with Moscow for ignoring the plight of Kazakhstan’s Russians. Or would you like to join other Russian expats on an excursion to discover sights and … The Russians did not leave alone; more than three-fifths of the German population, nearly two-fifths of the Ukrainians, and nearly a quarter of the Poles left as well. At the time of Kazakhstan’s independence in 1991, Russians outnumbered Kazakhs. Several leaders, forced by threats of violence, have immigrated to Russia. [Source: Glenn E. Curtis, Library of Congress, March 1996 *], Number of Russians (and their percentage of the total population) in Kazakhstan: 3,974,000 in 1959 (42.7 percent); 5,521,000 in 1970 (42.4 percent); 5,991,000 in 1979 (40.8 percent); 6,227,000 in 1989 (37 percent); 4,479,000 in 1999–2000 (30 percent); Approx. Russian is the primary language in business, science, and academia but all citizens are expected to pass a Kazakh language test if they wish to work for government or state bodies. Nevertheless, demographic trends make it probable that the next generation will have to learn Kazakh, a prospect that generates considerable discomfort in the non-Kazakh population. The practical primacy of Russian is reflected in the schools. Russian settlers in Kazakhstan also had an effect on Kazakhstani architecture. Close. If they emigrate as expected, the share of ethnic Russians in the population of Kazakhstan will drop from about 25 percent today to less than 10 percent in a decade or two. Only half of the members of the Assembly of the Peoples actually work in minority cultural centers; the rest are civil servants responsible for nationality issues. The first group, led by Ivan Klimoshenko, remains in the political opposition and supported the “For a Fair Kazakhstan” bloc during the presidential election in December 2005. The Russian government worried that Russia would be flooded with Russian returnees and was not forthcoming with the documentation necessary to live in Russia. Several sectors, such as the police and special forces, have been Kazakhized since the first years of independence, even since perestroika. In cities like Petropavl which is a focus of my story, ethnic Russians and Russian speakers make up more than 60 percent of the population and Russian is the lingua franca. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. Russians in Kazakhstan Rus.png 1,601 × 1,025; 99 KB Sergey Dyachenko Mazhilis Senate of Poland (cropped).JPG 1,954 × 2,625; 464 KB Sergey Dyachenko Mazhilis Senate of Poland.JPG 3,145 × … In 1991, when the Soviet Union broke u and Kazakhstan became independent, the Kazakh and Russian populations were approximately equal. An old Kazakh proverb goes: “If you are friendly with a Russian, take care or have an ax with you.” Ethnic tensions have kept from exploding due to some degree to strong arm tactics and compromises made on the part of Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev. In the north, Russians outnumber Kazakhs four to one. MOSCOW -- A U.S.-Russian crew landed safely Friday in the steppes of Kazakhstan following a stint on the International Space Station and was greeted with extra precautions due to … In fact, President Nazarbayev defended making Kazakh the sole official language on the grounds that decades of Russification had endangered the survival of Kazakh as a language. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. No huge headlines emerged from the trip, which was a walk down familiar paths and repetition of familiar phrases. By tradition Russians are Russian Orthodox. There are tensions over which language should be taught in school. According to Astana Times, the largest sources of returning ethnic Kazakhs from 2010-2015 were China and Uzbekistan, each seeing over 77,000 individuals gain Kazakhstani citizenship. In Beijing’s pursuit of shifting its trade and energy dependencies from sea to land, Nur-Sultan is a necessary partner. Out of 14 regional governors in 2002, only 2 were Russians, those of East Kazakhstan and Kokchetau. He called Yeltsin "brainless" and said large chunks of Kazakhstan were actually part of Russia. Despite official optimism over a trade deal, tensions continue to simmer at the people-to-people level. In a further attempt to control in-migration, President Nazarbayev decreed that no more than 5,000 families would be permitted to take up residence in the republic in 1996. The Astana region lost 122,000 people, or 24 percent of its population; North Kazakhstan region, 186,000, or 20 percent; and Karaganda region, 335,000, or 19 percent. Nor has there been extensive translation of technical or popular literature into Kazakh. Get briefed on the story of the week, and developing stories to watch across the Asia-Pacific. Its autonomy is therefore extremely restricted. Thus, for most Kazakhs Russian remains the primary "world language." Some regions, such as Qaraghandy, lost as much as 10 percent of their total population, resulting in shortages of technicians and skilled specialists in that heavily industrial area. Even those who are fluent find Kazakh a difficult language to work with in science, business, and some administrative settings because it remained largely a "kitchen" language in Soviet times, never developing a modern technical vocabulary. Yet development of the Kazakh language only succeeded in areas where Kazakhs already constituted a large majority of the population—the western and southernmost parts of the republic. First, Russia’s sudden emphasis on ethnicity superseding citizenship, as seen most evidently in Crimea. Indeed, in Kazakhstan, ethnic Kazakhs barely represented a plurality, clocking in at approximately 40 percent of the country’s population – only slightly more than the country’s ethnic Russian population. The volatility of the language issue has been augmented by Russia's controversial proposals, beginning in 1993, that Kazakhstan's Russians be granted dual citizenship. An organization called the Republican Slave Movement was founded to keep Kazakhs from moving in. In 2001 the legislature toughened exist- ing measures prohibiting the broadcasts of certain television and radio stations based in Russia. It gives priority to the “little nationalities” of the country, thus allowing to avoid polarization between Russians and Kazakhs. Stay on top of Kazakhstan latest developments on the ground with Al Jazeera’s fact-based news, exclusive video footage, photos and updated maps. These towns, and Almaty in southern Kazakhstan, began as fortified Cossack villages. In 1990 about twice as many schools taught in Russian as in Kazakh. Are there any big differences between Russians in Kazakhstan versus Russians in Russia proper? Kazakh first became a state language in the late Soviet period, when few of the republic's Russians gave serious thought to the possibility that they might need Kazakh to retain their employment, to serve in the armed forces, or to have their children enter a Kazakhstani university. 26 November 2020 10:07 . But Russian dominates commerce and science. In the center of the country, the satellite mining cities of Karaganda are partly abandoned.”^^, The other major source of in-migration has been non-Kazakhs arriving from other parts of Central Asia to avoid inhospitable conditions; most of these people also have settled in northern Kazakhstan. Proportionally, the out-migration of Russians was more pronounced in the southern and western areas, which lost approximately 35 percent of their population, than in the others, which lost approximately 25 percent. For the time being, though, Kazakhstan continues to grow only more mono-ethnic, and continues to shed ethnic Russians. According to the 2009 national census Russians made up 24 percent of the population of Kazakhstan. The shift, of course, wasn’t necessarily unexpected; all post-Soviet nations have seen notable changes in their ethnic makeup. [Source: Sebastien Peyrouse, “Russian Minority in Central Asia: Migration, Politics, and Language”, Woodrow Wilson Institute, 2007 ^^], “As of the 1994 parliamentary elections, Kazakhs dominated politics, a trend confirmed by the 1999 elections. More arrived, along with Tatars and ethnic Germans, during the Stalin purges in the 1930s. Canberra can help deepen relations with New Delhi by putting more effort into its relations with other South Asia states. Russian Tatneft eyeing butadiene production in co-op with Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is a country the Russian media can never forget. Despite many shortcomings of plans to develop the area for agriculture, northern Kazakhstan is an important wheat-growing region and Kazakhstan’s breadbasket. As in the case of non-Russian refugees, statistical estimates of intra-CIS migration vary widely, partly because Russia has not differentiated that category clearly from the refugee category and partly because actual numbers are assumed to be much higher than official registrations indicate. While all this was happening hundreds of thousands of Kazakhs died or fled during the forced collectivization and purges in the 1920s and 30s. For 25 years, Kazakhstan has been becoming more Kazakh. Sebastien Peyrouse of the Woodrow Wilson Institute wrote: “Kazakhstan is the only country in the region in which the Russian minority had a true political life in the 1990s. Are there any big differences between Russians in Kazakhstan versus Russians in Russia proper? Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, U.S. government, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications. From independence, Russian activists took part in the democratization process, principally within the political party Lad and the association Russkaia Obshchina. *, In 1994, at the height of the Russian exodus out of Kazakhstan, 280,000 Russians migrated out, mostly to Russia. The production of the Russian vaccine against coronavirus will open in Kazakhstan as RBK reported citing Kazakhstani President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev. Just $5 a month. With roughly 21 percent ethnic Russians, Kazakhstan inhabits the largest Russian minority of the five Central Asian republics. Many of Kazakhstan's northern industrial towns are inhabited primarily by Russians. All that changed when the Russians and later the Soviets tried to make it into the breadbasket of Central Asia. Us, Write North Korea continues to be hypersensitive about its handling of the pandemic. I understand the Russian language is spoken by almost everyone in Kazakhstan regardless of the speaker's ethnic background and it is true even today after the fall of the Soviet Union as the language is official/co-official along with the native Kazakh tongue. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. In 1994, Russians made up 36 percent of Kazakhstan’s population. Kazakhstan’s Economic Ministry tossed a bit of cold water on the numbers, noting that the mid-2000s saw nearly double the numbers of ethnic Russians leave annually. 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